This second edition is an extensive revision of this successful text. Like the first edition, it surveys the major approaches and methods in language teaching, such . Affect in Language Learning edited by jane Arnold. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and. Theodore S, Rodgers. Cambridge University Press - Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Second Edition Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers .
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Cambridge Core - ELT Applied Linguistics - Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching - by Jack C. Richards. milavernigsgigg.cf Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Jack C. Richards, Theodore S. Rodgers. Book DOI: milavernigsgigg.cf This new edition surveys the major approaches and methods in language teaching. This new edition is an extensive revision of the first edition of this successful.
Rodgers, Theodore S. Theodore Stephen. Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface This is a revised and reorganized version of the first edition, originally published in More than half of the contents of this new edition has been specially written for this edition.
Since the first edition was pub- lished, it has become one of the most widely referred to books on teach- ing methods.
Since then, however, a great deal has happened in language teaching. In planning this new edition, we have therefore made a number of substantial changes. We have divided the book into three main parts: Part I deals with major trends in twentieth-century language teaching.
The chapters in this section are substantially the same as those in the first edition but include an updated list of references. Part II deals with alternative approaches and methods. This section describes approaches and methods that have attracted support at different times and in different places throughout the last 30 or so years, but have generally not been widely accepted or, in some cases, have not maintained substantial followings. Addi- tional and more recent references have been added to these chapters.
Because these methods are no longer widely used, a shorter treatment seemed appropriate. Readers requiring fuller discussion of these methods should consult the first edition. Although these latter approaches share some features with communicative ap- proaches in Part III, we feel that they are sufficiently distinct to be grouped with the other approaches discussed in Part II.
Part III deals with current communicative approaches. New material has been added to the final sections of the chapter on Communicative Language Teaching, and addi- tional references have been added to this chapter and to the one on the Natural Approach.
Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface The history of language teaching has been characterized by a search for more effective ways of teaching second or foreign languages.
For more than a hundred years, debate and discussion within the teaching profes- sion have often centered on issues such as the role of grammar in the language curriculum, the development of accuracy and fluency in teach- ing, the choice of syllabus frameworks in course design, the role of vocab- ulary in language learning, teaching productive and receptive skills, learn- ing theories and their application in teaching, memorization and learning, motivating learners, effective learning strategies, techniques for teaching the four skills, and the role of materials and technology.
Al- though much has been done to clarify these and other important ques- tions in language teaching, the teaching profession is continually explor- ing new options for addressing these and other basic issues and the effectiveness of different instructional strategies and methods in the classroom.
The teaching of any subject matter is usually based on an analysis of the nature of the subject itself and the application of teaching and learn- ing principles drawn from research and theory in educational psychology. The result is generally referred to as a teaching method or approach, by which we refer to a set of core teaching and learning principles together with a body of classroom practices that are derived from them.
The same is true in language teaching, and the field of teaching methods has been a very active one in language teaching since the s.
New approaches and methods proliferated throughout the twentieth century. Some achieved wide levels of acceptance and popularity at different times but were then were replaced by methods based on newer or more appealing ideas and theories. Some, such as Com- municative Language Teaching, were adopted almost universally and achieved the status of methodological orthodoxy.
At the same time, alter- natives to mainstream approaches have always found some level of sup- port within language teaching, though often this has not led to wider acceptance or use. Methods in this category include those from the s such as the Silent Way, Counseling-Learning, Suggestopedia, and Total Physical Response, as well as more recent alternative methods and ap- proaches such as Multiple Intelligences, Neurolinguistic Programming, and the Lexical Approach.
Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching seeks to provide a comprehensive and comprehensible account of major and minor trends in language teaching methods from the beginning of the twentieth cen- tury to the present.
To highlight the similarities and differences between approaches and methods, the same descriptive framework is used throughout. This model is presented in Chapter 2 and is used in subse- quent chapters. Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface underlying theories of language and language learning; the learning ob- jectives; the syllabus model used; the roles of teachers, learners, and materials within the method or approach; and the classroom procedures and techniques that the method uses.
Where a method or approach has extensive and acknowledged links to a particular tradition in second or foreign language teaching, this historical background is treated in the first section of each chapter. Technique It is also possible to focus on the technical aspects of the pictures and what can be achieved by that. However, the lack of technical insight should not keep us from shooting pictures and using them in order to create language! Norwegian Sound Course The Sound Course for adult immigrants is a systematic introduction to the Norwegian sound system.
It also presents the most common structures and some topics in order to build up a vocabulary. Oral skill is the most important part of the language for integration. Each lesson consists of three parts: 1.
Phrases, questions and answers. Learn and practice how we pronounce the Norwegian sounds. Topics, functions, words and phrases. The activities are organized in various ways in order to attract attention of more adults. Thus, it is possible to attract more students to the programme. Amongst these activities, there are courses on language, playing musical instrument, ICT, dance, art, workshops, seminars, discussions on different topics, such as fast reading, healthy life, environment, sports, exhibitions, competitions, trips, and many other activities on communication skills, literature, drama, history.
For this reason, considering the target group above and what they need, our association has been established with the following objectives; - Contribute to the development of their personal and professional skills, - Contribute to their recognition of cultural differences, - Contribute to increasing the awareness on an active life, - Contribute to the social inclusion.
The learning process can be extended comfortably. It is not a mature and comprehensive method, but it is a process. The reason for our institution to look for new methods is that we were not successful in teaching English. There were several reasons for this and one of them was that the topics in an ordinary textbook could not attract the attention of adults.
When the topics themselves or the vocabulary were proper, then the presentation was not fit for adult perception, so there were always problems with the relationship between the tools we had and the addressee we had. An instructor from one of our partner institutions offered this method to our association to be used in our English courses. We accepted the offer and adopted the method. Its encyclopaedic definition is given below.
The Recipe Minced meat usually beef, veal, or a combination thereof, but also lamb, goat, sausage and various bird meat, such as duck and goose , rice, onions, and various spices, including salt, pepper and various local herbs are mixed together and then rolled into large plant leaves, which may be cabbage fresh or pickled , chard, sorrel, vine leaf fresh or pickled or broadleaf plantain leaves.
The mixture is then simmered for several hours. While specific recipes vary across the region, it is uniformly recognized that the best cooking method is slow simmering in large clay pots. A special ingredient, flour browned in fat is often added at the end of the process. This recipe and the like are converted into short, imperative sentences to be used in a lesson and they are sequenced according to their sophistication and vocabulary content.
Dishes that are difficult to prepare should be dealt in later stages and the vocabulary load should be adjusted accordingly.
With regard to the facilities, we have a great advantage over the ordinary language schools around for having a kitchen and a dining hall just upstairs to our classrooms. We use this opportunity to take learners to the kitchen and teach imperative sentences live. The main disadvantage of this method is the need for classes with fewer learners.
In order for each learner to follow the process in a somewhat confined space, classes should not exceed eight learners, making it difficult for administrators to organize lessons with kitchen sessions. Learners in general enjoy learning in this way but it really depends on the fact whether they are hungry or full at the time of the lesson.
ICOFOR is a professional training centre teaching in a traditional manner face-toface teaching and e-learning to adult job seekers and people with physical disabilities. The centre contributes to the main priority in French Guiana in offering the best quality training to adults, young adults and teenagers. Their expertise provides the resources required to meet this priority and to use in teaching what the students bring with them: their own culture, their own language.
This point is really a huge enrichment, learning from each other, accepting the differences in order to become a better citizen. Azeglio 78 Torino www. According to the association, a language course abroad is a particular product: for learners and especially students of a foreign language, it is not a package but a real educational experience. Therefore, in order to carefully choose a destination, a school or a particular type of course, it is good to rely on language consultants, professionals who have their own field of specialization in study courses abroad.
IALCA is the Italian reference for this kind of service, aiming to ensure high quality standards in terms of schools, accommodations for students, etc. Each member of IALCA is a language consultant who has made a commitment to ensure: proper information about courses, quality control of schools, and high standard of efficiency of services offered before, during and after the course. All members of IALCA agree to maintain close relationships with each other, even in its autonomy, and to share all information about courses and schools that can serve to provide a better service to the customer.
Introduction: When we use cinematic production in our organization, all authentic didactic materials are created based on the Italian and foreign cinematic production.
When we use Italian creations, we prepare a series of material based on cinematic production which characterizes our country and its famous directors.
In the last years in particular, we focused more on female artistic production, because many female directors and actresses have been very successful in Italy.
So, we wanted to benefit from their artistic accomplishments in order to create innovative didactic material for language teaching. The materials we create are always an answer to the needs of teachers and students according to the questionnaire carried out at the beginning of the courses and are always supposed to help the students find themselves in Italy. Such didactic materials based on cinematic creations easily reflect cultural and social aspects of Italy as well. Description of didactic activities: Pedagogical methods how we want it to be : Each lesson we want to create is composed of different parts and phases: lecture, guided analytic screening of sequences and group critiques.
When we already think about how the classes might look like, there it will be, during the morning, sessions dedicated to watching some clips as it will be illustrated in the programme. This is the way we want learners to be engaged with the materials. The approach used will be communicative, integrated with the global one, which tries to stimulate learner motivation through the interaction of the five senses.
Attendance, participation, improvement and assignments will be regularly checked through class discussions, quizzes and questionnaires. For organizational reasons, the visits will be done for areas, always right after the clips of the morning sessions. An example of an Italian language course based on cinema following the approach described above Description: Our courses do not require any particular knowledge in specific fields.
A bibliography of basic texts and cinematography terminology is provided. As we said before, the candidates are given a question- naire to fill in, in order to see their language competencies, their needs and expectations. The course presents the development and changes of the Italian society in the last decades, through the Italian cinema. Some knowledge of the most important periods of the 20th century Italian history is required. Objectives: The course firstly aims to provide the participants with knowledge of Rome through some selected movies.
Particular attention is given to some distinguished places and art sites of the eternal city, also taking into consideration other cultural and social aspects, represented in the films. The participants, besides studying some relevant moments of the Italian cinema, visit during the afternoons the most relevant places shown in the presented clips.
Methodology: Each lesson is composed of different parts and phases: lecture, guided analytical screening of sequences and group critiques.
Each film is illustrated in relation to its aesthetic relevance and to the historical and cultural context in which it takes place. During the morning, there are sessions dedicated to watching some clips as illustrated in the day-by-day programme.
The approach used is communicative, integrated with the global one, which tries to stimulate learner motivation through the interaction of the five senses. Attendance, participation, improvement and assignments are regularly checked through class discussions, quizzes and questionnaires. The course provides 25 twenty five classes during the morning plus 10 ten in the afternoon. The participants receive all the necessary didactic material.
For organizational reasons, the visits are done for areas, not always directly after the clips of the morning sessions. Follow up: After the course, we promote discussions and new forums on the internet, sharing the learning experience in Rome, trying to find people who have taken part in similar training courses. Since the participants are teachers or trainers, our organization always wants to check if the attendance has changed the way they perform their job.
Internet: We put the results of the course in a section on the website of our Institution. We also keep this new section updated with the conclusions we reach during other follow-up initiatives. Example of a day-by-day programme for a 5-day training 1. Introduction to Neorealism and film terminology. Didactic activities: Lexical fiches prepared ad hoc to widen the Italian vocabuary concerning cinema. Guided tour to peculiar clip sites. The desire to escape and forget the tragic period of the war.
Didactic activities: dramatization to improve specific linguistic functions, such as expressing opinions, giving advice, disagreeing, making comparisons etc. How foreigners see Italian culture and the city of Rome. Participants reflect on the topics displayed. Didactic activities: collaborative and negotiating conversations in order to write and dramatize a short film. The third contradicts all that the first two teach us. Broniewskiego Tadeusza Kosciuski 6 Plock www.
The main activity of the institution is borrowing books to its readers, but apart from that there is a wide range of other actions that the library takes. To name just a few, there are: organizing exhibitions and scientific sessions, promoting books, introducing educational classes, inspiring adult readers for different forms of educational activities, etc.
The library is also very active in other areas thanks to cooperation with different institutions. Our method of teaching a foreign language to adults was inspired by Helen Doron Method that specializes in teaching English to children. The Helen Doron Method is based on the principle that all children possess a natural ability which can be developed and enhanced through a nurturing environment.
The method is something more than learning. It is connected with a process of acquiring a language. The emphasis is put on the communication, not on the form. Young students can acquire a second language with relative ease and can express themselves without any greater obstacles. Unfortunately, when it comes to adult students, everything seems to be much more complicated.
It would be quite hard to use the same method while teaching children and adults. A brain of a three-year-old child works completely different from a brain of year-old person. When we are around puberty, our natural ability to pick up a second language drops, and it goes more and more difficult as we get older. That is why, when it comes to teaching such a group of students, it is quite important to differentiate their needs and reasons for learning a foreign language.
How to make a lesson interesting and involve students in an activity? Play songs, watch videos — repetitive hearing; 2. Use funny real objects, instead of photocopies and dull traditional materials; 3. Play games, make competitions; 5. Make crafts; 6. Give a lot of positive reinforcement. The method lets adults experience the language and makes the process of learning faster and more effective.
We remember very little of what we read or hear.
It is scientifically proved that our brain best remembers things that are outstanding, exaggerated, unexpected or dramatic. The fact that people remember anything that is unusual can be considered as an advantage in the classroom.
That is why in our method we pay a great attention to games and activities. Games provide an opportunity for intensive English practice and make students use the language meaningfully. Games are also enjoyable and motivate students to take part in a lesson.
We can use different types of games card games, board games, puzzles, guessing, role-play, etc. The method itself fosters whole-brain learning. The learner is treated as a whole person, not only intellectual, but also emotional and physical. Consequently, language learning is multi-sensory and skilfully linked with music, games, artistic abilities, activities and physical movement.
The method goes well with specially designed books for seniors. Older people like to have everything given in a clearly way. Their attention is not fuelled by imagination and curiosity, but they have very specific reason to study a language.
Such a book provides clear explanations of grammar rules and can even be studied at home. What is more, the pace of recordings is slower and easier to comprehend. The size of a typestyle also differs. It is usually bigger and more convenient for people with poor sight. The topics of the lessons are practical and adjusted to the age of students. The method we use while teaching a foreign language to seniors, engages all senses at the same time, which makes learning English enjoyable and effective.
A friendly atmosphere, as well as positive reinforcement play a very important role in the process of teaching and learning. The students need to feel safe in the classroom so their language ability can never be equated with their intelligence.
Due to its long experience and tradition of 24 years in teaching adults and organizing foreign language courses, it has become a place of reference and excellence when it comes to the foreign language schools in Rijeka. At the moment, they are teaching: English, German, Italian and Croatian for foreigners. There are about adult learners. The staff includes 10 people, including the principal and an administration clerk. The teaching approach is interactive and the staff is constantly looking forward to developing new and interesting teaching methods, which gives students the opportunity to apply their knowledge in a practical way, through simulation.
The staff is constantly focused on the development of methods for teaching foreign languages based on language learning through cultural topics and sharing those through ICT. Besides language activity, another important activity is the presentation and promotion of Croatia that has a very rich heritage, which is relatively unknown to the majority of people outside Croatia.
The Mask in Teaching The long experience of language teaching in the Adult Education Institution Dante is based on the application, analysis, improvement and perfecting the teaching methods and techniques, which enable the development of communication skills in the student, and thus competences in the foreign language and official language in foreign citizens who are temporarily staying in Croatia.
The general methodology of foreign language teaching started to develop at the end of the 19th century and is based on learning grammar structures and translating grammar translation method. A foreign language is learned in the same way Latin an extinct language was learned for centuries. However, such method for learning the languages which kept their communication function through time has become inefficient, because it did not reach its main objective: communication!
Our institution applies the total immersion technique or total language approach. There are basically two 2 types of total immersion approaches: a effective and b ineffective.
An effective total immersion environment begins in hour one wherein the teacher speaks the foreign language slowly, clearly, and uses easily understandable and comprehensible cognates, at least to the best of his or her ability as a foreign language professional educator. Hand gesticulation, appropriate modelling, various realia, such as picture files, photos, videos can facilitate such effectiveness.
An ineffective total immersion approach occurs when the teacher opens the class by speaking rapidly at native speed as if the students were residing within the target culture, as if they were inputting the attempted language on an hourly, daily basis.
In essence, the student is being treated as if they were living in the country where the foreign language is predominant.
Either type of immersion often overlaps any or all of the above-mentioned methods in second-language L2 acquisition. In our region, the mask is a symbol of the carnival, the period of the year when nature comes out of winter, evil spirits that have disturbed us during the winter are chased away, nature wakes up and is ready for a new cycle of life.
There have been various stories and traditions about the Carnival for as long as anyone can remember. The mask has its magic and power. We are free and relaxed. The mask is like a shield. Even the simplest headscarf around the eyes can be a mask because it allows us to concentrate and focus on one thing. These are all assumptions indicating the fact that in teaching, the mask is a facilitator, which enables the students to relax, feel free from some rigid formalism characteristic for the education process that applies classical teaching methods and techniques.
The mask can be used in every stage of the education process and is a fantastic facilitator for the development of speech and communication skills, and can also be used for the development of writing skills in combination with understanding exercises, especially listening. It may be used at all levels, but based on our experience this method has maximal efficiency on higher levels when the objectives encompassing the development of verbal communication are more complex and students should constantly be stimulated to speak and interact.
Example of a Lesson with Masks The following will be a standard presentation of general articulation of an educational activity lasting 90 minutes, intended for an A2 level group. The same may be applied in the case of foreign language teaching or teaching native tongue. In pairs or threes, each with his mask, starting from the analysis of the mask, the students make a short conversation.
Students imagine a conversation on a given topic with their masks Speech — interaction - Dialogue on a given topic - Grammar structures Vocabulary: active vocabulary of each student When talking about the mask, we must mention theatre and acting. The mask is a tool for a play as a teaching method.
Presenting teaching content through dramatic expression stimulates the participants of the educational process to creativity, creation and expressing all preferences and peculiarities. In language teaching, it represents a powerful medium for developing the skills of active communication.
It should be pointed out that in case of adult teaching, we have to accept the fact that this method is not always applicable and that it depends on how much the adults are prepared to accept the challenge offered by the mask and acting in teaching. Before introducing this method, there has to be a feeling of mutual trust between the students and the teacher. If the students do not accept this method, the teacher should not insist because this is only a means for achieving the main goal, communication.
Simultaneous Foreign Language Learning Besides the mask, but independently of its use in teaching, in the framework of the project, we have developed a model of informal simultaneous foreign language teaching. During one month of two-hour sessions, held in the period from December until May , the students involved in the project, had the opportunity to participate in classes based on simultaneous learning of two foreign languages on the basic level.
The classes were held by two teachers of different languages, who dealt with the same topic, but in different languages, using different methods and taking care that during one session the students develop all language skills at least in one of the two languages.
During the creation of the activities, it was important to take into consideration the assumption that languages cannot be mutually translated, but they are complementary to each other and serve to acquire different grammar and communication structures. The activities were directed towards the beginner level, with the general objectives being: - Naming the key words on a given topic, - General understanding of a simple text on a given topic, - Describing in simple language the objects, persons, key notions on a given topic, - Handling simple communication with the interlocutor on a given language and on a given topic.
The exit is through learning. By learning, we can design our life in a creative and useful way and thus react to life difficulties. In such surroundings, lifelong learning and language learning play a great role. Attention should be paid not only to cognitive, but also to emotional intelligence so that a man could feel and be aware of the need for lifelong learning, which is becoming increasingly important in the contemporary world.