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The Front Torso: Three heads long, from a line drawn acros the shoulders to the pubic arch, it divides a across the base line of the pectozals: The Back Torso: Three and a half heads long, from a line drawn across the shoulders to the base of the buttocks, it divides a across the base line of the shoulder blades; bs across a line drawn through the center of the externus oblique muscles the line of the navel in front ; c actoss the line of the coccyx bone at the base of the spine the line of the pubic arch in front ; d across the line of the base of the buttocks.
One-half head long in the erect position, from the point of the chin to the pit of the neck. The wrist lies on the position of the great trochanter, across the line of the pubic arch in front and the coccyx bone in the rear, The hand length adds three-quarters of a head to the arm; thus, the total length of the arms is three and a half heads long, 5.
The Leg: Four heads long, from the great trochanter to the high inner ankle bone, it divides mid-point at the knee, The foot adds one-fourth head to the length; thus, the total length of the leg is four and a quarter heads long, 6. The Hand: Three-quarters of a head in length, or the distance from the point of the chin to the hairline; the width is one-quarter of a head wide, or the distance from the hase of the nose to the point of the chin.
The Foot: The foot length is equal to the length of the forearm, or one and a third heads long; the width at the front of the foot is one- half head wide The finer details of measurement in the body are developed in the chapter on the Details of Anatomy and are integrated with the specific descriptions of each of the figure sections, race Franciel Cruz Santos.
Hardy Iglesias Garcia. Breana Melvin. Carlos Antonio Roque Cordova. Carduus Nutans. Theo Haban. The nipple disc B is located on this line just above the deep corner margin of the chest muscle. When both breasts are shown, especially in a three quarter view, they can QHYHU be seen simultaneously from a direct, frontal position.
One breast will be seen with its centrally located nipple disc face on, while the other will be seen in a side view, with its nipple projecting in profile. After the rib cage, the pelvic wedge is the second largest mass of the body. Locked to the barrel by the tapering muscles of the waist, the wedge box is narrow at the top, broader at the base. Schematic rendering of the two torso masses: In the normal, erect attitude of the body, the two torso masses express an inverse, counterpoised relationship: Here, the lower pelvic wedge is tipped forward, the underbelly is recessive, and the rear buttock area arches upward into view.
The butterfly wedge easily indentifies the pelvic wedge masses in this rear, almost side, view. The wing forms are overlapped and foreshortened from front to back. The butterfly configuration is evident in a rear view of the mature female pelvic mass. Note the relatively larger hip structure, both in width and in bulk, compared to the upper chest mass. A narrow rib cage combined with a wide pelvis identifies the female torso and is a distinguishing characteristic of male-female differentiation.
When the two torso masses are joined, the result is a compound, torso which assumes the simplified form of a massive NLGQH shape above. The kidney shape of the combined torso masses is characterized by the distinctively narrow waist of the body the flexible central axis between the upper torso the rib cage barrel and the lower torso the pelvic wedge.
The waist, because of its axis- like quality, is capable of great versatility of movement. In this series of sketches, the butterfly device is shown to be an easily established point of reference and an aid in drawing any rear view of the pelvic forms of the lower torso left.
Described simply, the arm and the leg are elongated, jointed two-part members, each of whose parts has a modified cone or cylinder shape.
Note that both the arm and the leg swivel, or rotate, high in the shoulder A or hip Al ; both have a bending, or rocking, joint in the middle of the member at the elbow B or the knee Bl ; and both have a terminal gyrating member, the hand or the foot, attached to a tapered base at the wrist C or the ankle C1.
For all their similarity, the arm and the leg have decidedly different structural rhythms. The curving rhythm of the arm in a rear view. The clue to the underarm curve is found in the position of the HOERZ Locate the elbow, and you will be able to trace the line upward toward the rear armpit; the lower line can be followed from the elbow down to the base of the outer palm. No matter how the arm moves, from simple positions, such as the two extended arms shown above right, to deep, active bends left , the consistent undercurve is always present.
Invariably, this curve provides the basis for the arm's structural rhythm. A frontal figure with arms flexed and foreshortened shows the correlation of double curves see arrows.
An arm in deep space extension gives us the underarm double curve see arrows , proof of the arm's unvarying structural rhythm left. This side view of the right leg, bent at the knee, shows the structural rhythm of the bent leg clearly indicated see arrows with an S-line curve above. This side view of the right leg shows a long S-line curve taken from the active thrusts of the leg muscles see arrows.
This S-line starts high on the front thigh, reverses at the knee, and moves rearward down the calf bulge left. A three quarter view of the leg of a seated figure seen from the rear. The S-line curve of the leg see arrows shows how clearly the structural rhythm of the leg can be seen.
While the S-line rhythm establishes a guideline for drawing side views of the legs in many different positions and movements, there is a point where we find a IURQWDO appearance beginning to overrule the side YLHZ position.
The erect, far leg the supporting leg is in a three quarters position, turned slightly away from side view; but the S-line is still evident in it because the rhythm of the leg structure has a basically side view orientation.
Compare this with the crossed left leg. The structure of the leg when seen from the front takes on the appearance of an elongated B-shape see diagram to left of drawing.
The small line diagram to the left of the drawing shows how the B-shape is applied in the conception of the front view leg as a simple beginning of the final workup beside it. The B-shape rhythm of the front view leg accounts for all manner of leg bends and actions.
In this figure, we see a front view leg with a bent knee; the straight B-shape line is given a corresponding break.
Note the exposed anklebones. Once again, these protruding anklebones immediately signal a frontal leg approach, and call for a B-shape control of forms see arrows. Rear view legs, without exception follow the front view leg rule: In this example, the inward curve of the shinbones has been accentuated not an uncommon thing in many persons in order to illustrate a variant of the straight control line of the B-shape formula for the front view leg: In this example of two rear view legs, the left knee bend produces a corresponding break in the inside line of the B-shape.
In looking at this figure projected into deep space, see how easily the B-shape works to orient the legs in this difficult view see arrows. The position of the anklebones tells us that the approach must be frontal. In these front view legs in a hunched, crossed- over position, curved accents have been inserted on the line of the shinbones to emphasize their inward curve. The problem of arranging flexed, overlapped legs is easily solved by using B-shape controls.
Here is another example of crossed front view legs in a cramped position. Only the accented shinbone curves have been drawn in; the B- shape controls have been left out, and the reader is urged to study the drawing and determine them himself. This figure is added here so that we may recapitulate and combine two of the earlier discussions of the different structural rhythms of the extremities: These two wedges, however, are very different in structure.
In the two examples which follow, the wedge forms of the hand and the foot have been supplemented by companion sketches to show the unique character of each. Thus, we note the basic difference between the hand and the foot: The shape-mass of the foot is a broad-based wedge, showing a remarkably high, triangulate elevation at the rear, from whence a steep diagonal descends to the front.
The front sole divides into two sections: The toes differ from the platform support in their function; they act as traction and projection devices—gripping and pushing. The foot wedge is a compound form that consists of three main parts: The toes reveal a high, upthrust rise of the large toe tip, contrasting sharply with the downthrust, closed pressure of the small toes see arrows.
Of major significance in describing the foot is the deeply curved instep formed by the high, open arch A connecting the base supports of the heel and the sole. Viewing the instep from the underfoot surface, we see that the foot base supports are connected in another way by the long elliptic ridge B of the outer foot. Note the differences between the inner and the outer foot connec tions: From the front, the foot wedge has the appearance of a wide, high block shape with a steep foreward ramp on its top surface.
This slope ends in the quick upcurve of the tip of the large toe. This rise, seen from the immediate front, shows the toe tip thrusting up from the base plane of the foot left. Toes, like fingers, show miniscule rod and ball construction small sketch: Because they are quite small and close-set, the toes are frequently difficult to draw without distortion when done in this way.
In the step arrangement, the toes emerge from the sweeping descent of the arch and close down in a three-stage formation which resembles a short flight of steps. The wedge of the front foot, showing stepped toes, contrasts with the up-thrust large toe.
Note the inside arrow control line which holds inner forms in check above. The hand, like the foot, gives us a set of rod and ball constructions in the alternating bone shanks and knuckle capsules of the fingers. The rod and ball construction of the hand derives from its internal skeletal structure. It is the skeletal structure which is plainly responsible for the hard, bony surface throughout the upper palm and fingers above.
The fingers are remarkably longer and more flexible than the toes. They tend to override the plane of the palm easily in active contrapositions which are not possible in the passive, closed toe system of the foot. The visible rod and ball forms of the hand develop a rising and falling rhythm which gives a ZDYHOLNH motion to the entire finger system, all the way down to the fingertips.
The bottom of the hand is soft, fleshy, and cushioned throughout revealing three large padded cushions: The finger units, too, are thickly protected with a fleshy mantle. After studying the general rod and ball I finger forms, we must call attention to the thumb. The thumb is the key finger of the hand, and with its striking wedge shape, is built like a thick spade, or spatula. The initial form of the thumb is a narrow length of shank bone topped with a squarish head A.
The thumb narrows, then spreads wide with a heavy pad B. It tapers to the tip C , and swings from its base upward in a strong, curved rise D. The thumb, unlike the other fingers, does QRW lie on a horizontal plane equal to the palm wedge. It assumes a contrary, tipped-over position which is obliquely opposed to the mutual, flat arrangement of the other four fingers.
Also, the thumb tends to drop quite far below the level of the palm right.
Let us start by restating the simplified description of the compound torso shape- masses in two views: In both sketches, the large chest barrel A and the pelvic wedge B are join together by the mid-axial muscles the waist C , a region of remarkable flexibility.
When we work with the torso mass as separate entities, we can draw great variety of movements. The a vantage of putting in the essential body planes is that it permits us to see clear the correct angle of placement and ho to attach the secondary forms. In the sketches, the masses are structure firmly, then tipped in greater or less degree, and shown in three quart front views.
The rudimentary head, arms, and legs are indicated here to 1 the viewer grasp the over-all working of the total figure. Seeing the body as a flat silhouette encourages a simplistic description of the figure as a mere DUHD and a drawing of this flat shape commonly assumes the character of an outline, or contour, drawing only.
Shape-mass, on the other hand, demands to be understood as volume structure in three dimensions; this makes it possible to draw the figure in deep space projections, putting the human form into the most inventive and varied conceptions of foreshortening, advancing and receding in space. Like a sculptor working with modeling clay, the artist can structure and compose by building-up.
He can alter the actions and projections of separate forms. He can revise and modify his forms at will. For instance, he must put aside starting the figure by sketching in the head. He must give this up, firmly. With this premise, let us initiate the new order of form and assert the opening rule.
Here are four structured torsos, showing the ease with which figure notation may be indicated in a sequence of movements from left to right, front to back. It must be obvious now why the double torso mass is instrumental. The merest movement of the rib barrel produces an immediate displacement of arms and head, while a pelvic shift compels total deployment of all the body forms. In this two-stage drawing, the primary torso masses are on the left, the completed figure on the right.
Of crucial interest here is the insertion of the midline in both figures. Notice how this midline, or center line, gives unity and direction to the independent movements of the separate masses right.
In movement, the separate torso masses need not face in the same direction. Starting with a simple bend only figure on extreme left , this series of torsos shows an 5- line spiral insertion expressing a swivel, or twist, between the contrary views of the body masses: A series of figure variations showing the correlated and contrary directions of the torso masses, using the midline insertion connection.
Legs, arms, and head have been added here to show how the torso, as the primary figure form, governs the positioning of the secondary parts. Our initial assertion has been that the torso is first in importance. It works against the pull of gravity, expressing weight, pressure, and tension; it needs leg support to sustain it. Without this support, the figure may not be able to project a convincing demonstration of exertion, effort, and dynamism.
This fact also calls for a more emphatic use of the pelvic wedge than has previously been discussed. When the torso forms have been sketched in, the pelvic wedge must be clarified as to structure and direction, with the midline division well laid in so that the legs can be given their relevant attachment.
In this figure, the upper rib cage barrel has been lightly indicated. The lower torso the pelvic wedge on the other hand, has been explicitly defined, with the legs set into each side of it. This series of figures shows the wedge block of the pelvis initiating the attachment of the legs. Notice how the cylindrical thigh form of the upper leg enters the pelvic mass well below its box-like front comer.
When we attach the legs to the sides of the pelvic wedge block, note the large, protruding secondary form, the centrally located lower belly actually the mass of the small intestine , which is encased in the hollow of the pelvic basin.
The figure to the left shows a schematized version of the bulging belly box mounted in the opening of the hip flanges. The center figure relates this belly bulge to the legs. Notice how the legs, entering the hips, tend to squeeze the base of the belly.
Because of the apparent pressure, the belly rises high in the basin. The figure to the right emphasizes the high belly insert in an action figure: The round protru sion, high in the sides of the legs, is the great trochanter, the bony eminence which lets us see the origin of the leg as it swivels, bound yet free, in the socket of the hip. Let us review the structure rhythms of the leg.
In the small, erect figure to the left, the front leg is characterized by a B-shape. The side leg in a raised bend position has an S-curve line. Both rhythms are shown in the dotted lines. The large, center figure faces left with both legs in a side view position which are expressed with S- curve notation lines.
The two figures to the right show how the side view leg is easily interpreted in both front and back positions. The upper figure presents a front view leg in a deep bend, which is described with a B-shape curve. No discussion of the leg would be complete without noting the stance of the feet and their relationship as support platforms to the pillars of the legs.
In this front view leg, notice how the entire length of the leg thrusts LQZDUG from the high, outside hip projection to the low, inner ankle projection VHH long leg arrow. The foot stance is shown in the dotted ellipse. Note the thrust of the foot as the ankle connection reverses the bearing of the leg and thrusts the support direction of the foot RXWZDUG see short foot arrow.
This series of action figures allows to see the stance of the foot from number of viewing angles. We have mentioned the enormous flexibility of the two body masses the torso, which effect extreme move ment in the mid-axial connection the waist. When the body weaves sways, or gyrates, it is important give the leg pillars an effective a convincing support.
Note how the long leg arrows reverse at the ankle, then bear the foot stance in outward direction from the leg. In this summary series of sketches, which show leg and torso positions and actions the reader is asked to let his eye range casually over each figure. Can you identify easily which of the legs is drawn from a side view S-line orientation and which from a front view B-shape orientation?
In making your judgment, do you observe how the anklebone relates to each leg view —whether the bulge is inside or outside the outline of the leg?
As you look at the lower legs, are you aware of the outward thrust of the feet? Now we propose the third factor in this sequence: No matter how they move, whether singly or together, parallel or in opposition, it is important, in sketching them, to see them as a XQLW a bracketed or yoked pair of correlated members. Earlier, we spoke of the structure rhythm of the double underarm curve. This, together with tapered cylinder forms, is a rudimentary de- scription of the arm.
Free-swinging as they are, their position in the region of the shoulder is secured with fiber and tissue.
The shoulderblade scapula to which the arm is attached is itself unanchored, and the lesser attachment of arm to collarbone is a variable connection. The arms at this juncture are inde- pendent of the frame, but the collarbone is anchored in the breastbone sternum , and here, all the way down to mid-chest, the junction is firmly secured and cannot be displaced.
The only real movement here is equal to that of a fixed hinge.