Bangladesh Code is the Codification of all existing Acts of Parliament, Ordinances and President's Order (except Regulations and purely amending laws) in. This page contains listing of free Law Books Online TextBooks and tutorials they are downnloadable or for viewing online in the html pdf zip chm or rar file. Bangladesher social science and researches organizations directory. Khan, Abdur Rahman. Basic labour laws of bangladesh. Ahmed, Iqbal. Black's law.

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    PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Cambridge eBooks Online milavernigsgigg.cf, KB Wiley Online Books Title List. xls, KB Cambridge Books Online - Statistics and milavernigsgigg.cf, 43 KB. All Laws Of Bangladesh, A must app for any lawyer or conscious people of Bangladesh. This android application contains all Bangladeshi laws from to .

    The doctrine of legitimate expectation in Bangladeshi law has developed through judicial precedent. Codification and language[ edit ] The Bangladesh Code has been published since Most of its laws, dating between and , are in English. Following a government circular in , the code has been published primarily in Bengali. However, most magistrates courts and district courts use Bengali. The lack of a uniform language has been a cause of concern, with arguments in favor of both English and Bengali. The country's financial sector depends on English, whereas cultural nationalists prefer Bengali. Freedom of information[ edit ] The Right to Information Act passed by the Jatiyo Sangshad was hailed as a major reform.

    Constitutional Status of Islamic Law Recently amended Article 2A to the Constitution of Bangladesh, provides that the state religion of the Republic is Islam, but the State shall ensure equal status and equal right in the practice of the Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and other religions. While the Government generally respects this provision in practice, religion exerts a powerful influence on politics, and the Government is sensitive to the Muslim consciousness of its political allies and the majority of its citizens.

    Citizens generally are free to practice the religion of their choice; however, police are normally ineffective in upholding law and order and are often slow to assist members of religious minorities who have been victims of crimes. Although the Government states that acts of violence against members of religious minority groups are politically or economically motivated and cannot be solely attributed to religion, human rights activists reported an increase in religiously motivated violence.

    Government The President, while the Head of State article 48 2 , the Bangladesh Constitution, , holds largely a ceremonial post to appoint the Prime Minister and the Chief Justice articles 56 and 95, the Bangladesh Constitution, ; the real power is held by the Prime Minister, who is the Head of Government. The President is elected by the legislature Members of Parliament for 5 years Articles 48 1 and 50, the Bangladesh Constitution, The President's circumscribed powers were substantially expanded during the tenure of a Caretaker Government, which is now repealed by the provisions of the Constitution Fifteenth Amendment Act, Act XIV of Under the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which the Parliament passed in March , a Caretaker Government assumed power temporarily to oversee general elections after dissolution of the Parliament.

    In the Caretaker Government, the President had control over the Ministry of Defense, the authority to declare a state of emergency, and the power to dismiss the Chief Adviser and other members of the Caretaker Government. Once national election was held and a new government and Parliament were in place, the President's powers and position revert to their largely ceremonial role.

    According to the Constitution, the president can dissolve the Parliament upon the written request of the Prime Minister Article 57 2 , the Bangladesh Constitution, Parliament — the House of the Nation, the Jatiya Sangsad The legislature is a unicameral, seat body. All its members are elected by universal suffrage at least every five years.

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    Parliament amended the Constitution in , making a provision for adding 50 seats reserved for women and to be distributed among political parties in proportion to their numerical strength in Parliament Article 65 3 , the Constitution of Bangladesh, All citizens of Bangladesh of and above the age of 18 and of sound mind, resident of a constituency and not convicted of any offence under the Bangladesh Collaborates Special Tribunal Order, , who have registered themselves as voters Article , the Constitution of Bangladesh, , form the electorate.

    Each constituency elects one Member of Parliament on the basis of direct election. All citizens of Bangladesh who have attained the age of 25 is qualified to be elected in the Parliament.

    Those disqualified include the insane, un-discharged bankrupts, persons who on conviction for a criminal offence involving moral turpitude who have been sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years unless five years have elapsed since their release, persons owing allegiance to a foreign state, and persons holding an office of profit in the service of the Republic Article 66 2 , the Constitution of Bangladesh, A general election for a new Parliament takes place on the same day in all constituencies.

    It proclaimed fundamental human rights, including freedom of speech , freedom of religion , freedom of movement , freedom of assembly , the right to education and public healthcare among others. A two thirds vote of parliament was required to amend the constitution. After winning the general election, the Awami League government often flouted constitutional rules and principles.

    The government received strong criticism from the Bangladeshi press, including both Bengali and English newspapers. The Awami League enacted three constitutional amendments between and The most drastic amendment was in January It introduced a one party state and a presidential government, while the judiciary's independence was greatly curtailed. Constitutional rule was suspended on 15 August with the assassination of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the declaration of martial law.

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    The Chief Martial Law Administrator issued a series of Proclamation Orders between and which amended the constitution. The most significant of these orders was defining citizenship as Bangladeshi ; other orders included the insertion of religious references and the controversial Indemnity Ordinance. In , martial law was lifted, multiparty politics was restored and constitutional rule was revived.

    The Fifth Amendment in validated all Proclamation Orders of the martial law authorities. An executive presidency continued until When constitutional rule was restored in , the Sixth Amendment validated previous Proclamation Orders issued by the Chief Martial Law Administrator.

    The Eighth Amendment in declared Islam as the state religion and initiated limited devolution of the judiciary. The uprising was followed by parliamentary elections in The Twelfth Amendment passed by the fifth parliament is the most influential constitutional amendment in Bangladesh.

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    It re-established parliamentary government. It amended Articles 48, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 70, 72, , , , A and Local government was made more democratic. However, the amendment restricted the voting freedom of MPs. According to Article 70, MPs would lose their seat if they voted against their party. We will learn in chapter 20 that much of the law regarding business entities—for example, the laws of corporations, partnerships, and limited liability companies—is state statutory law.

    The various state codes are available here. The President is a source of law because he can sign or veto bills passed by the federal legislature i.

    Laws in Bangladesh

    Executive orders are binding edicts issued by the President for the purpose of interpreting or implementing a provision of the federal laws or policies; they are usually directed to a federal administrative agency and its officials. For example, in January President George W. Treaties are agreements between the United States and one or more other countries. An example of a treaty is the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations Vienna Convention , which the United States ratified with the advice and consent of the Senate in The Optional Protocol is a helpful treaty to discuss for two reasons.

    First, the United States withdrew from the Optional Protocol in Whether a treaty is self-executing or non-self-executing depends on the language of the treaty. Each of the states also has an executive—that is, a governor. Governors have similar powers and duties in their state governments as the President does in the federal government.

    A court is a governmental body of one or more judges who preside over cases and resolve disputes by issuing judgments. In the United States, there is a dual court system. There is a federal court system and each state and territory has its own court system.

    We will learn the structure of the federal and state court systems in chapters 6 and 7, respectively. The courts are a source of law for two reasons. First, courts may engage in judicial review. This judge-made law—called common law—is the body of law resulting from cases.

    The common law in the United States is a holdover from the English common law, which originated during the Anglo-Saxon period in England and developed further after the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror and his troops in He brought local custom including some that predated the Norman conquest to the national level, put an end to local control, and reinstated the citizen jury system.

    A discussion of judicial review and the common law leads to the concepts of precedent and stare decisis. When a case is decided, the decision is thereafter a precedent, that is, a reason for deciding a similar case the same way. There are two types of precedent—binding and persuasive. Binding precedent is precedent that must be applied or followed by a court.

    It applies when a lower court is considering a case similar to a case previously decided by higher court in its jurisdiction.

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